Las elecciones andaluzas de 2018. El uso de bots como herramienta de análisis de la agenda informativa electoral

Autores/as

  • Raúl Magallón Rosa Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
  • Francisco Javier Paniagua Rojano Universidad de Málaga
  • Sonia Chacón Peinado Universidad de Málaga

Resumen

Esta investigación analiza el uso de Twitter por parte de diferentes fuentes informativas y políticas, durante la campaña electoral andaluza de 2018. Para su realización se creó un bot (unfaking_es) que tuiteaba informaciones relacionadas con la campaña por parte de fuentes seleccionadas previamente -partidos políticos, candidatos, medios de comunicación-. Se diferencian dos momentos en la campaña electoral, que aceleran la verificación de los hechos y los discursos, los debates electorales y la jornada electoral. 

Citas

Abel, J. y Wirth, M. (1977):“Newspaper vs.TV Credibility for local news”, Journalism Quartertly 54, págs. 371-375

Bae, P., Lüders, M., Spangenberg, J., Rath-Wiggins, L., & Følstad, A. (2015). Emerging journalistic verification practices concerning social media. Journalism Practice, 10(3), 323–342. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2015.1020331

Bracken, C. (2006): “Perceived source Credibility of Local Television News: The Impact of Television Form and Presence”, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50 (4), págs. 723-741.

Campos Domínguez, E. (2017). Twitter y la comunicación política. El profesional de la información 26 (5), 785-793.

Casero-Ripollés, A., Domenech-Fabregat, H., & Izquierda-Castillo, J. (2014). From Watchdog to Watched Dog: oversight and pressures between journalists and politicians in the context of Mediatization. Trípodos, 34, 23–40.

Chartprasert,D. (1993): “How bureaucratic writing style affects source credibility”, Journalism Quarterly 70, págs. 150-159.

Choi, J. et al. (2006): “Perceptions of News Credibility about the War in Iraq:Why War Opponents Perceived the Internet as the Most Credible Medium”, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12, págs. 209-229

Farias Batlle, Pedro; Paniagua Rojano, Francisco Javier; Gómez Calderón, B. (2011). Informe Anual de la Profesión Periodística 2011. Madrid: Asociación de la Prensa de Madrid.

Farias Batlle, P. Y Roses Campos, S. (2008): “Sobre los estudios de credibilidad”; en Farias Batlle (DIR.): Informe Anual de la Profesión Periodística 2008, APM, Madrid.

Freedom Forum’s Free Press/ Fair Press Project (2000). Director: Robert J. Haiman, Arlington,VA, 1998-2000. EEUU.

Gaziano-McGrath y Meyer: Gaziano, C. y McGrath, K. (1986): “Measuring the concept of credibility”, Journalism Quarterly 65, págs. 451-462;

Gómez-Calderón, B., & Paniagua-Rojano, Francisco-Javier, Roses Campos, S. (2017). La campaña en 140 caracteres. Empleo de Twitter por parte de los candidatos de los partidos mayoritarios ante las elecciones generales de 2016 en España. El Profesional de La Información, 816–823.

Graves, L. y Glaisyer, T. (2012). The Fact-Checking Universe in Spring 2012: An Overview. New America Foundation Media Policy Initiative Research Paper. Recuperado de https://www.newamerica.org/oti/policy-papers/the-fact-checking-universe-in-spring-2012/

Greenberg, B. S. (1996): “Media use and believability: Some multiple correlates”, Journalism Quarterly 43, págs. 665-671;

Gronke, P. y Cook,T. E. (2007): “Disdaining the Media:The American Public’s Changing Attitudes Toward the News”, en Political Communication 24(3), págs. 259-281;

Gunther, A. (1992): “Biased Press or Biased Public? Attitudes Toward Media Coverage of Social Group”, The Public Opinion Quarterly 56, págs. 147-167

Gutiérrez-Rubí, Antoni (2016). “Bots para la comunicación política”. Antoni Gutiérrez-Rubí, 2 noviembre. https://www.gutierrez-rubi.es/2016/11/02/bots-encomunicacion-politica

Ibelema, M., y Powell, L. (2001): “Cable television news viewed as most credible”, Newspaper Research Journal 22, pág. 41.

Johnson,T. J., y Kaye, B. K. (1998):“Cruising is believing? Comparing internet and tradicional sources on media credibility measures”, en Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75, págs. 325-340

Johnson,T. J. y Kaye, B. (2000): “Using is believing:The influence of reliance on the credibility of online political information among politically interested Internet users”, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77(4), págs. 865-879

Johnson y Kaye, B. K. (2002): “Webelievability: A path model examining how convenience and reliance predict online credibility”, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 79 (3), págs. 619-642.

Jungherr, Andreas (2016). “Twitter use in election campaigns: A systematic literature review”. Journal of information technology & politics, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 72-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2015.1132401

Kiousis, S. (2001): “Public trust or mistrust? Perceptions of media credibility in the information age”, en Mass Communication & Society 4, págs. 381-403

Lee, T. (2005): “The Liberal Media Myth Revisited: An Examination of Factors Influencing Perceptions of Media Bias”, en Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 49 (1), págs. 43-64

López-García, G. (2016) ‘Nuevos’ y ‘viejos’ liderazgos: la campaña de las elecciones generales españolas de 2015 en Twitter. Communication & Society 29(3), 149-167. https://www.unav.es/fcom/communication-society/es/resumen.php?art_id=586

López García, Guillermo; Gamir Ríos, José; Valera Ordaz, L. (2018). Comunicación política. Madrid: Síntesis.

Lu, H. y Andrews, J. (2006): “College Students’ Perception of the Absolute Media Credibility about SARS-Related News during the SARS Outbreak in Taiwan”, China Media Research 2(2), págs. 85-93.

Luchok, J. A. Y McCroskey, J. C. (1978): “The effect of quality of evidence on attitude change and source credibility”, Southern Speech Communication Journal 43, págs. 371-383

Magallón-Rosa, R. (2018a): “Leyes fake news”. TELOS. FUNDACIÓN TELEFÓNICA. https://telos.fundaciontelefonica.com/las-leyes-las-fake-news-problema-la-libertad-informacion-no-legislar/

Magallón-Rosa, R. (2018b): “Nuevos formatos de verificación. El caso de Maldito Bulo en Twitter”, Sphera Publica, 1 (18), 41-65. Disponible en: http://sphera.ucam.edu/index.php/sphera-01/article/view/341/14141417

McCroskey, J. C., y Mehrley, R. S. (1969):“The effects of disorganization and nonfluency on attitude change and source credibility”, Speech Monographs 36, págs. 13-21

Meyen, M. y Schwer, K. (2007): “Credibility of media offering incentrally controlled media systems: a qualitative study based on the example o East Germany”, Media, Culture & Society 29, págs. 284-303.

Meyer, P. (1988): “Defining and measuring credibility of newspapers: Developing an index”, Journalism Quarterly 65, págs. 567-574.

Mulder, R. (1981): “A log-linear analysis of media credibility”, Journalism Quarterly 58, págs. 635-638

Nyhan B., Reifler J. (2012). Misinformation and fact-checking: Research findings from social science. New America Foundation Media Policy Initiative Research Paper. Recuperado de https://www.newamerica.org/oti/policy-papers/misinformation-and-fact-checking/

Oyedeji,T. A. (2007): “Incredible Media or Incredulous Audience:The effects of Polarization and Partisanship on Media Credibility. Paper”, presentado en la AEJMC Annual Convention Program de 2007 Washington DC

Patterson, T. E. (1980).The Mass Media Election: How Americans Choose Their President. New York: Praeger.

Sánchez-Gonzalez, Hada M.; Sánchez-González, María (2017). “Los bots como servicio de noticias y de conectividad emocional con las audiencias. El caso de Politibot”. Doxa comunicación, n. 25, pp. 63-84.

Serrano Puche et Al. (2018). Información política y exposición incidental en las redes sociales: un análisis de Argentina, Chile, España y México. Doxa.Comunicación, (27), 19–42.

Shao, C., Ciampaglia, G. L., Varol, O., Yang, K. C., Flammini, A., & Menczer, F. (2018). The spread of low-credibility content by social bots. Nature Communications, 9(1), 4787. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06930-7

Schweiger, W. (2000): “Media credibility-experience or image? A survey on the credibility of the World Wide Web in Germany in comparison to other media”, European Journal of Communication 15 págs. 37-59

Shaw, E. (1973): “Media credibility:Taking the measure of a measure”, Journalism Quarterly 50, págs. 306-311

Slater, M. D. y Rouner, D. (1996): “How message evaluation and source attributes may influence credibility assessment and belief change”, Journalism Quarterly 73, págs. 974-991;

Sundar, S. (1999):“Exploring receivers’ criteria for perception of print and online news”, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 76(2), págs. 373-386.

Vallone, R. P., Ross, L. y Lepper, M. R. (1985): “The Hostile Media Phenomenon: Biased perceptions and perceptions of media bias in coverage of the Beirut massacre”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49, págs. 577-585.

von Nordheim, G., Boczek, K., & Koppers, L. (2018). Sourcing the Sources: An analysis of the use of Twitter and Facebook as a journalistic source over 10 years in The New York Times, The Guardian, and Süddeutsche Zeitung. Digital Journalism, 6(7), 807–828. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2018.1490658

Westley, B. y Severin,W. (1964):“Some correlates of media and credibility”, Journalism Quarterly 41, págs. 325-335

Wolton, D. (1995). Communication et Democratie. Medias Pouvoir, 30.

Descargas

Publicado

2019-12-27